Some concepts from Spanish law , such as the prior appropriation doctrine and community property , still persist in some US states, particularly those that were part of the Mexican Cession in Under the doctrine of federalism , each state has its own separate court system , and the ability to legislate within areas not reserved to the federal government. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Urukagina , Hittite laws , and Ostracism. Jus vigens current law. Legal history.
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A Roman citizen was also spared more extreme forms of punishment including torturous forms of execution such as crucifixion. Various levels of Roman citizenship Roman citizens were generally held in higher esteem than non-citizens, even if they were of slave background.
The Edinburgh History of Ancient Rome
However, there were different levels of Roman citizenship with different rights associated to them. Cives Romani : The cives romani were full Roman citizens. They were subdivided into two classes: the non optimo iure , who had rights of property and marriage and the optimo iure , who also had the right to vote and hold office. Latini : The Latins were a tribe living in Latium in central Italy who came under Roman control at the close of the Latin War — BC noting that the term Latini came to include people of non-Latin background.
The Latini held a number of rights similar to those of Roman citizens the Latin Rights or ius Latii in Latin but they did not have the right of marriage ius connubii. Socii : The Socii or Foederati were citizens of states which had treaty obligations with Rome and had certain rights in exchange for agreed levels of military service.
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Following the Social War 91—88 BC , the Lex Julia was passed in 90 BC giving full Roman citizenship to all Latini and Italian socii states and the socii states that had not participated in the Social War and the Latini and socii levels of citizenship disappeared. Provinciales and freedmen: The provinciales were people from the provinces who were under Roman control or influence, but who only had basic rights under international law ius gentium.
Freedmen were former slaves who had gained their freedom and were not automatically given Roman citizenship. Their children however were born free citizens.
Web of relationships, culture, rather than papers proved citizenship Romans did not carry around ID cards or documentation proving their Roman citizenship with them all the time. What proved a person's citizenship was first and foremost this person's web of relationships and position in society. A Roman citizen was usually a member of a family, tribe and a gens. For example, if a person's parents were citizens then people automatically knew that the person in question was also a citizen. Except for Romans in the lower social classes, Roman citizens were required to participate in the state and many held positions in public office.
Because these positions could only be held by citizens, there was no need to prove Roman citizenship. When in doubt, anyone could just ask around about a person's social standing and reputation. This made even more sense in a society where those who could read and write were the exception rather than the norm. In a small town, word of mouth was often the only way people had to prove their Roman citizenship. Language and clothing also played a role in determining if a person was a Roman citizen or not. An individual who spoke good Latin, who behaved and dressed in certain ways, displayed his status and Roman identity.
Only Romans could wear the toga and it was strictly forbidden for non-citizens, foreigners, freedmen and slaves to wear it in Roman territories. Men of infamous career e.
Roman names Roman names were also a sign of Roman citizenship. They were a way to immediately identify the status of an individual, his clan and family. Traditional Roman names for male Roman citizens consisted of three parts and not two as it is usually the case today : the praenomen , the nomen and the cognomen.
The Edinburgh History of Ancient Rome - Edinburgh University Press
The nomen was the name of his clan. The praenomen distinguished individual members of the clan from one another while the cognomen was the first name.
The cognomen was at first a nickname e. Superbus , "the proud", Maximus , "lofty", Crassus , "fatty". During the Republic cognominia were usually unflattering and it is only during the Roman Empire that flattering cognominia became popular. In larger clans the cognomen helped distinguish members of the clan and was more like a family name and the agnomen , a fourth name, was added to distinguish between persons with the same cognomen. The cognomen was also like a nickname related to the personality, physique or achievements of an individual. Here are some examples of Roman names:.
Gaius Julius Caesar praenomen nomen cognomen Marcus Licinius Crassus praenomen nomen cognomen Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus praenomen nomen cognomen agnomen The name Africanus in the last example, is related to Scipio's victories in northern Africa. In 24 AD it became a criminal offense to adopt the three-part name tria nomina if an individual was not a citizen and using the tria nomina by non-citizens was considered a type of forgery.
Provincials usually used one or two names their name and the name of their fathers and it was very common for people in the provinces to have only one name. Slaves usually only had one name, either the name they had before enslavement or the name assigned to them by their master.
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Upon receiving his freedom and Roman citizenship, a male slave took the praenomen and nomen of his master and kept as cognomen the name he had been called as a slave or changed it to a Latin or more Latin sounding name 1. Tribal lists, Roman census, birth certificates, grants of citizenship The census from the Latin word censere was carried out every five years and identified Roman citizens.