The Cambridge Companion to Margaret Atwood (Cambridge Companions to Literature)

This is the fullest collection of La Rochefoucauld's writings ever published in English, Oxford World's Classics Includes a new critical edition of the French text, and is the first to take into account Selected Poems: with parallel German text.

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The vacant post was offered to Georg Philipp Telemann from Hamburg, who declined, and then to Christoph Graupner of Darmstadt, who, in declining, recommended Bach to the council. After Graupner's refusal a member of the council remarked that since the best musicians were unavailable an average one would have to be selected. In February Bach played a trial service and presented Cantata No. At a second appearance he presented his setting of the Passion of Our Lord according to St. More than a year after the death of Kuhnau, Bach was made cantor of Leipzig.

One can appreciate the reluctance of the Leipzig committee to appoint Bach. He did not have a university degree, and his reputation was primarily as an organist, not as a composer. The other candidates were recognized composers, and Bach's ability as an organist was not needed since the cantor was not required to play at the services.

66. So gehst du nun, mein Jesu, hin. BWV 500.

His duties, rather, were primarily to provide choral music for two large churches, St. Thomas and St. A cantata was performed alternately at each church every Sunday. In addition, special music was required on festive days of the church year and for other occasions such as funerals and installations. In his arrangement with the council, Bach promised to perform not only the musical duties but also other responsibilities in connection with the St.

Schemelli Geistliche Lieder Und Arien

Thomas's School, such as teaching classes in music, giving private instruction in singing, and even teaching Latin. In Leipzig he composed the bulk of his choral music. The list includes church cantatas, of which have survived, 6 great motets, the 5 Masses, including the B Minor Mass, and the great Passions and oratorios.

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Frederick had expressed the desire to meet the great Bach, and for the occasion Bach improvised a six-part fugue on a theme submitted by the King. He dedicated it to Frederick with the words, "A sovereign admired in music as in all other sciences of war and peace. In his final years Bach was afflicted with gradual blindness, and he was totally blind the last year of his life.

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A few days before his death he dictated a setting of the hymn Vor deinen Thron tret' ich allhier Before Thy Throne I Stand to his son-in-law. The composition was prophetic.


Following a stroke and a raging fever, Bach died on July 28, Four of his sons carried on the musical tradition of the Bach family: Wilhelm Friedemann and Carl Philipp Emanuel by his first marriage, and Johann Christoph and Johann Christian by his second. For Bach, writing music was an expression of faith. His musical symbolism, his dramatic flair, even his insistence on no unnecessary notes—all served to profoundly interpret the text.

Bach, Johann Sebastian

Every composition, sacred and secular, was "in the name of Jesus" and "to the glory of God alone. Albert Schweitzer , J. Bach ; trans. Hans T. David and Arthur Mendel, eds. Bach's work in the context of the times is discussed in Manfred F. Preeminent composer who brought the baroque style in music to a close; b. Eisenach, Germany, March 21, ; d.

Johann Sebastian Bach |

Bach was the most illustrious member of a family of successful musicians, all of whom, until Sebastian's youngest son Johann Christian bach became a Catholic, were Lutheran. Sebastian was only ten when his father, a musician in the Eisenach town band, died; thereafter he received most of his musical training from his elder brother, Johann Christof, in Ohrdruf. In he entered his first post as organist of the New Church at Arnstadt, transferring in to a similar post at St.

A year later he became court organist to the Duke of Weimar and was later promoted to the post of concertmaster i. In he was appointed to one of the chief musical posts in Germany, music director in Leipzig at two principal churches, St. He retained this post until his death. Philipp Emmanuel and Johann Christian became more famous than their father during their lifetimes. Religious Music. Sebastian's fame was chiefly that of a virtuoso organist and a learned but old-fashioned contrapuntist; his music never had the success of G.

If, like Handel, he had depended on popular approval for his livelihood, he might have adopted more of the newer compositional techniques; but since he remained all his life a paid employee of either prince or town council, he was under no urgent compulsion to please the public ear. Whereas Handel's music looks outward, every note designed to make an immediate impression on its audience, Bach's is introspective, full of detail that can be perceived only through careful listening and sympathetic understanding.

Though he wrote much instrumental music, he designed the bulk of his work for use in the Lutheran church.

18th-century German composers

In notes on thorough-bass playing dictated to his student Niedt, he said: "The aim and final reason of all music should be none else but the glory of God and the recreation of the mind. Where this is not observed, there will be no music but only a devilish hubbub. Bach wrote church cantatas five yearly cycles of 59 each during the first six years of his Leipzig cantorate, of which some are extant. To study them profitably it is important to remember their intimate connection with the liturgy of the Lutheran Sunday morning or festal service: their texts frequently contain quotations from, or reference to, the Epistle and Gospel of the day, and the concluding chorale is always that of the particular Sunday or feast day.

The music is full of symbolism, allusion, and word painting that become clear only when the works are viewed in their liturgical context. Most of the cantatas commence with a large-scale movement, frequently blended with the Italian concerto style; but where Handel would have a largely homophonic texture, Bach develops the chorus in elaborate counterpoint, e.

Sometimes this is combined with a chorale cantus firmus in the top chorus voice Wachet auf, No. The first movement may also be built on a French overture No. Several cantatas use a chorale melody as a thematic basis for all movements, but treated very freely. Only one of these preserves the melody intact throughout — Christ lag in Todesbanden No. Cantatas having two or more chorales are generally narrative cantatas, e.

Similar variety of style and form is found in the solo arias, duets, and trios that form the middle section of cantatas. The Mass in B minor is a composite work: the first two movements were heard as a Lutheran missa when the Elector of Saxony visited Leipzig in The Gloria uses material from an earlier cantata No. The other movements, from the Credo onward, are now known to. As court composer to the elector who was a Catholic , Bach compiled the Mass, but it was never intended for Catholic or for any liturgy in its complete form.

Each of the sections has something of the plan of a cantata but also follows the shape of contemporary Masses by Austrian and Italian composers.

The Passions according to St. John and St. Matthew represent a compromise between the earlier "dramatic" and the newer "opera" forms of Passion composition. Bach retained the complete relevant Gospel portions in both works, adding chorales of his own selection. For the solo arias and accompanied recitatives of St. John he drew on a text by Heinrich Brockes, and for St. Matthew his libretto was prepared by a Leipzig poet, Picander. John is more obviously dramatic by reason of the fewer lyrical interruptions to the narrative and the extended "crowd" sections; St. Matthew, though it has dramatic moments, is more meditative and leisurely in its progress.

Bach's treatment of the Gospel narrative is peculiarly his own: he abandoned every trace of the old chant intonations, substituting a vocal line ostensibly based on the secco recitativo but with a lyrical turn of phrase not to be found there, an effect that conformed entirely to the requirements of the German language and to the expressiveness required by the subject.

In the Passions, as in all his religious music, Bach's devotion and deep feeling for religion are manifest. Bibliography: Werke, ed. Ann Arbor ; Briefe, ed. Regensburg London ; 2d ed.